Joint Force Quarterly 71

Joint Force Quarterly 71

(4th Quarter, October 2013)

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  • Inverting Clausewitz
  • 2013 Essay Competition Winners

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Despite presence of armed forces in Honduras, children rarely leave home, even during daytime, and gangs restrict families’ movements by imposing “invisible borders” between gang territories, 2016 (EU Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations/Antonio Aragón Renuncio)

"Untapped Resources" for Building Security from the Ground Up

By Viva Bartkus

What are the implications of expanding the U.S. Military's role beyond armed conflict? The author answers with a case study showing how the U.S. Army Special Operations Command forged a successful alliance with business in Honduras. Working by-with-through (BWT) the private sector and the University of Notre Dame Business on the Frontlines program, the U.S. Military overcame bureaucratic resistance to create a powerful and self-sustaining force to enhance security. The result is an unconventional partnership with American and Honduran business leaders, and a creative approach to theater security planning which redefines the concept of jointness.

Owltonomous, autonomous surface vehicle from Florida Atlantic University, competes during Office of Naval Research–sponsored Maritime RobotX Challenge, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 14, 2018 (U.S. Navy/John F. Williams)

Tactical Maneuver in the Cyber Domain: Dominating the Enemy

By Jennifer Leigh Phillips

Imagine the possibilities if tactical teams could plan a raid that integrated air and ground support, and on-call fires in the cyber domain. This article argues that our national defense organizations invest in capabilities, tactics and training to successfully conduct tactical maneuver in the cyber domain. The Joint Force must be able to visualize and integrate the cyber domain with other domains to achieve strategic military and national objectives. The ability to dominate the enemy in cyberspace as part of combined arms all-domain operations, says the author, is an essential requirement for the Joint Force.

Cyber warfare operators assigned to 275th Cyber Operations Squadron of 175th Cyberspace Operations Group, Maryland Air National Guard, configure threat intelligence feed for daily watch in Hunter’s Den at Warfield Air National Guard Base, Middle River, Maryland, December 2, 2017 (U.S. Air Force/J.M. Eddins, Jr.)

From DOPMA to Google: Cyber as a Case Study in Talent Management

By David Blair, Jason Hughes, and Thomas Mashuda

How should we manage cyber talent in the information age? How do we use the military’s existing systems of talent management to optimize recruitment, employment and retention of the cyber force? Although we live in an age of increasing availability of information and integration of artificial intelligence, cyber warfare remains a human endeavor. To ensure the U.S. maintains its qualitative edge in the cyber domain, the Joint Force must attract, develop and retain the right people. This means borrowing good ideas from the private sector, say the authors, encouraging creativity, allowing flexibility and developing future leaders who understand their craft.

JPME Today

MC-130J Commando II from 9th Special Operations Squadron airdrops Maritime Craft Aerial Delivery System over Gulf of Mexico during training exercise, November 12, 2015 (U.S. Air Force/Matthew Plew)

Covert Action as an Intelligence Subcomponent of the Information Instrument

By Charles Pasquale and Laura Johnson

Covert Action consists of methods to influence political, economic and military conditions abroad where the government’s role is neither readily apparent nor publicly acknowledged. Because oversight of Covert Action is the responsibility of congressional intelligence committees and because the fundamental purpose is to manipulate information (and conceal knowledge about the actors involved) these methods belong to the information instrument of the DIME typology of diplomatic, information, military and economic instruments of power. Strategists and educators should keep this in mind in order to balance the costs, risks and benefits in support of national security and foreign policy objectives.

Marine Corps graduate (left) of Lance Corporal Leadership and Ethics Seminar 01-18 accepts certificate of completion from course director (middle) and her instructor (right), on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California, July 27, 2018 (U.S. Marine Corps/Brendan M. Mullin)

Augmenting Bloom for Education in the Cognitive Domain

By Douglas E. Waters and Craig R. Bullis

Bloom’s Taxonomy (named for educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom) is a system to classify learning objectives according to their level of complexity. In Professional Military Education (PME) Bloom’s Taxonomy is used to differentiate learning levels and create sequential learning objectives. This approach makes sense for most PME students but not everyone. Thus, the authors propose a stratified systems theory as a complementary framework that can be used to meet the contextual need across all PME educational systems. Implementing this recommendation, say the authors, will enhance PME and better prepare graduates to face the challenges associated with a dynamic, uncertain future.


Sergeant Brooke Grether, U.S. Army Reserve military police Soldier and gunnery crew truck commander with 603rd MP Company, out of Belton, Missouri, poses for portrait after finishing gunnery lane at Fort Riley, Kansas, May 18, 2018 (U.S. Army Reserve/Michel Sauret)

Warrior Women: 3,000 Years in the Fight

By Mary Raum

Women in combat is not a new idea, though there is still skepticism in the U.S. military about women participating in combat. However, there are numerous historical examples of female combatants performing on an equal footing with their male counterparts, which should overcome this skepticism. Military leaders should consider studying these examples to support gender equitability in the military and dispel harmful myths. Meanwhile, war colleges and service schools should use historical examples of women in war to develop curriculum, and the demographics in the classrooms should reflect an equitable ratio of men and women.

Marine recruit Maria Daume, Platoon 4001, Papa Company, 4th Recruit Training Battalion, drags simulated casualty on combat training course during Crucible, January 5, 2017, Parris Island, South Carolina (U.S. Marine Corps/Greg Thomas)

Military Medicine: The Gender Gap in Trauma Training

By Daniel P. McGarrah

There are systemic problems preventing women from receiving the same emergency medical treatment as men, says author Daniel McGarrah of the US Army who wrote this essay as a student at the College of International Security Affairs. The Department of Defense (DOD) has made it clear that women will serve in combat, so women’s survivability should be equal to men. DOD policy supports training, medical treatment and research to ensure women have equal opportunity to survive combat trauma. This essay won the Strategic Research Paper category of the 2018 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Strategic Essay Competition.

Marines with 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, and Airmen with 9th Air Support Operations Squadron, 3rd Security Force Assistance Brigade, conduct call-for-fire training during exercise Comanche Run at Fort Hood, Texas, February 26, 2019 (U.S. Marine Corps/Sahara A. Zepeda)

The Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement: An Old Tool for the Modern Military

By William M. Stephens

This article builds on a recent contribution from General Votel and Colonel Keravuori (in JFQ 89) who showed how the BWT approach promotes sustainable multi-national, regional and local defense institutions. Using a simple exchange of supplies and materials by via Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement transactions, the Joint Force can simultaneously build partner capacity and increase logistical interoperability. This simple but effective tool, says the author, allows service members to function in ambiguous, complex and volatile environments. Given the demands of future operations, the Joint Force must utilize all resources available to be leaner, faster and more mobile.

Indonesian armed forces soldiers and Borzoi Company, 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division (1-27 Wolfhounds), participate in
live fire exercise during Garuda Shield, in Cibenda, Indonesia, September 27, 2017 (U.S. Army National Guard/Matthew A. Foster)

A Model for Tactical Readiness Through Strategic Opportunity

By David A. Zelaya and Joshua Wiles

Theater Security Cooperation Programs (TSCP) are often viewed as burdens and distractions. However, if managed correctly TSCPs can significantly increase unit readiness. This article provides a model based on the authors’ experience in Operation Garuda Shield 17, which placed tactical leaders at strategic points of friction to communicate up and down the chain of command. TSCPs should be viewed as readiness opportunities rather than burdens because they provide opportunity for increased resources, unique experiences, as well as deployment and training readiness. Exercise planners and their partner-nation equivalents are the key audience, say the authors, to influence and ensure success.


Reserve Soldiers from 418th Military Police Detachment (Detention Camp Liaison), headquartered in Orlando, Florida, receive tour of U.S. Naval Consolidated Brig in Charleston, South Carolina, March 5, 2018 (U.S. Army Reserve/Michel Sauret)

Unity of Command: Authority and Responsibility over Military Justice

By Lindsay L. Rodman

Military justice has been undergoing constant change recently, as a stream of legislation continues to modify the procedures through which we achieve justice in the military. This period of flux is now coming to an end, as the most sweeping reforms in thirty years passed Congress in 2016. Perhaps the most important outcome is not what has changed, but what stayed the same: the role of the commander in the military justice process. This article examines the commander’s historical role in the military justice process, and the challenges of maintaining authority and responsibility.

U.S. Africa Command partner from Gabon participating in Africa Endeavor 2017 sits in on briefing during weeklong event in Lilongwe, Malawi, August 21, 2017 (U.S. Navy/Dominique Shelton)

U.S. Africa Command and Its Changing Strategic Environment

By William Robert Hawkins and Brenda Jeannette Ponsford

U.S. Africa Command has been training governments to combat terrorism, insurgency, and transnational crime while instilling the principles of professionalism and good governance. However, major changes in the strategic environment call for a new approach. Based on changing trade patterns, China’s rising influence, and the U.S.’s new focus on great power competition, say the authors, USAFRICOM must now help African leaders safeguard national independence and root out foreign corruption. A whole-of-government approach is needed to prevent dark money from subverting local governments and turning would-be allies against the United States.

Soldier with 541st Engineer Company, Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force 7, moves concertina wire over stake on practice barricade at Naval Air Facility El Centro in California, December 4, 2018 (U.S. Marine Corps/Asia J. Sorenson)

Enhancing Unit Readiness on the Southwest Border

By Cindie Blair, Juliana T. Bruns, and Scott D. Leuthner

Realistic training for military can often be illusive. Factors such as urban growth, pollution, competition for frequencies and airspace, and protected habitats, continually challenge the Department of Defense in carrying out realistic training at installations. However, a small task force in the southwest has developed a solution to keep units training as they fight. At Fort Bliss in Texas, Joint Task Force North (JTF-N) has developed innovative training opportunities for units that otherwise may not get the chance. While the benefits are easy to see, JTF-N is always looking for new ways to save money and enhance unit readiness.


New Zealand landing troops at Gaba Tepe, Gallipoli (Anzac Cove), April 25, 1915 (Archives New Zealand)

Gallipoli: Lessons from the Great War on the Projection of Power and Joint Forcible Entry

By Patrick William Naughton

The Gallipoli Campaign in April 1915 is one of the few events in WWI that incorporated land, sea, subsurface, air and multinational operations. Today we recognize this as a truly joint operation. This campaign offers the Joint Force important lessons on the projection of power and forcible entries for large scale combat operations within the all-domain operational concept. These include unity of command, joint fires, multiple dilemmas, logistics, the consolidation of gains and medical support services. The Gallipoli Campaign is a case study and a valuable learning tool for modern day planners which should not go to waste.

Book Reviews

The Cold War’s Killing Fields: Rethinking the Long Peace

The Cold War and The Cold War’s Killing Fields

Reviewed by Walter M. Hudson

Two new books revisit the Cold War. Odd Arne Westad’s The Cold War: A World History and Paul Chamberlin’s The Cold War’s Killing Fields. Westad does not use the standard bracket of 1945-89, but takes the long view back to nineteenth century economic turmoil and turn-of-the-century anti-colonialist sentiment. Chamberlain also emphasizes this same point, that the Cold War was much more than a bipolar ideological struggle. According to reviewer Walter Hudson, neither book is perfect, particularly the Chamberlin book in which American policies and policymakers do not receive fair treatment. Nonetheless, the merits of both books outweigh their flaws.

Diplomatic Security: A Comparative Analysis

Reviewed by Gregory Starr, Edited by Eugenio Cusumano and Christopher Kinsey

In In this new book, two adept editors, Eugenio Cusumano and Christopher Kinsey, combine and edit the work of eleven authors’ different looks at diplomatic security as practiced in nine countries—China, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States—as well as some overall themes on the subject. The result is perhaps the most comprehensive public study of the topic released to date, and the work stands as a reminder of the high price nations have paid in pursuit of diplomacy, as well as the difficulties and tradeoffs of balancing diplomatic efforts and the security operations meant to protect them.

Joint Doctrine

Special forces from Gulf Cooperation Council nation attempt to hook boarding ladder onto U.S. Army vessel “Corinth” during visit, board, search, and seizure training in Arabian Gulf during exercise Eagle Resolve, March 17, 2015 (U.S. Air Force/Kathryn L. Lozier)

The Insufficiency of U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

By John A. Pelleriti, Michael Maloney, David C. Cox, Heather J. Sullivan, J. Eric Piskura, and Montigo J. Hawkins

As the U.S. enters a new era of near-peer competition, Irregular Warfare (IW) doctrine is insufficient to counter adversary employment of irregular strategies. China, Russia, Iran, North Korea and Violent Extremist Organizations are using irregular methods to include information, cyber, economic, and unconventional warfare to offset conventional military advantages. The doctrinal terms IW and Unconventional Warfare (UW) provide a common point of departure for the doctrinal discussion, but are incomplete, generally not well understood and often misused. According to Pelleriti and co-authors, U.S. planners must reassess and update IW terminology, concepts and authorities to be successful in this new era.

Iraqi security forces and coalition partners, including U.S. Army Soldiers with 3rd Cavalry Regiment, provided fire support to assist Syrian Democratic Forces as they continued military offensive to rid so-called Islamic State from Syria, June 8, 2018 (U.S. Army/Anthony Zendejas IV)

Fire for Effect: The Evolution of Joint Fires

By J. Mark Berwanger

Joint Publication (JP) 3-60, Joint Targeting, was revised and signed by the Director of Joint Force Development, and JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support, is in the final stages of its revision, tentatively scheduled for release in fall 2019. While both of these documents are commendable, says Mark Berwanger, some will claim that joint doctrine falls short in providing sufficient doctrine to integrate and synchronize all capabilities needed to accomplish the commander’s intent. Until the definition, utilization, and cultural understanding of “fires” is updated to include all offensive capabilities regardless of the weapon system, problems of integration and synchronization will remain.

Joint Doctrine Updates

By The Joint Staff

Joint Doctrine Updates