Joint Force Quarterly 105

Joint Force Quarterly 105

(2nd Quarter, April 2022)

The Quantum Internet

  • An Interview with Richard D. Clarke
  • Toward Military Design

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The Million Man March, October 16, 1995, in Washington, DC (Mark Reinstein)

Letter to the Editor

By Kenneth D. Dunn

It is time for a thorough review of our PME taught by all the Services with the thought of improving the academic and practical approaches to winning the next battle. I recommend that NWC and all war colleges be required to take a time out to consider what is happening now and be compelled to write a way ahead that will improve race relations in our Services and society. Unless they do, the foundation of our national security will erode precipitously.


Medal of Honor recipient Army Captain Humbert Roque “Rocky” Versace (U.S. Army)

Executive Summary

By William T. Eliason

On a rainy spring day here on the Potomac, the war in Ukraine rages on, and what can be done is being done. Ukrainians are showing the world what real courage is as Russia wages a brutal war against them. While Thomas Hobbes told us that life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short,” war is certainly all those things and more. The pain of war spreads out widely in the obvious ruins of lives lost, cities leveled, homes and businesses destroyed, and futures denied. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, on February 24, 2022, will be remembered by millions of people, like some of us remember 9/11 or December 7, or the fateful early July days of 1863, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

National Institute of Standards and Technology physicist Katie McCormick adjusts mirror to steer laser beam used to cool trapped beryllium ion, as part of efforts to improve quantum measurements and quantum computing, October 26, 2018 (National Institute of Standards and Technology/James Burrus)

The Quantum Internet: How DOD Can Prepare

By Lubjana Beshaj, Samuel Crislip, and Travis Russell

The future viability of a quantum Internet could shape the strategic environment for U.S. military forces. This environment comprises the critical operational areas in which DOD finds itself during competition, conflict, or combat. These operations are known, sometimes interchangeably, as multidomain or all-domain operations (MDO/ADO). As DOD and the U.S. Government invest in developing a quantum Internet or securing their access to it, they will witness a growth in their cyber domain capabilities, which, due to the interwoven nature of multidomain or all-domain operations (MDO/ADO), will translate to gains in the other warfighting domains.

Soldiers assigned to 1st Squadron, 152nd Cavalry Regiment, 76th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 38th Infantry Division, Indiana Army National Guard, engage in Military Operations in Urban
Terrain drill at Lešt military training center, Slovakia, November 10, 2019 (U.S. Air National Guard/Jonathan W. Padish)

Fog of Warfare: Broadening U.S. Military Use-of-Force Training for Security Cooperation

By Patrick Paterson

This article examines the nature of contemporary conflicts from two perspectives: the legal references that guide operations and the rules on the use of force. It describes the key differences between military and police tactics on the use of force. These contrasts are particularly important for security assistance efforts that U.S. forces conduct with dozens of partner nations each year. For legal and operational alignment with its partners, the United States should broaden its doctrine and revise its policy on the use of force during security cooperation activities to include police tactics governed by criminal and human rights law.

Rocket carrying last satellite of BeiDou Navigation Satellite
System blasts off from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in
southwest China’s Sichuan Province, June 23, 2020 (Xinhua/Jiang Hongjing)

BeiDou: China’s GPS Challenger Takes Its Place on the World Stage

By David H. Millner, Stephen Maksim, and Marissa Huhmann

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) provide a service many people take for granted. The GNSS applications people use fall into five major categories: location, navigation, tracking, mapping, and timing. Today, four countries operate GNSS: the United States has GPS, Russia has GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), the European Union (EU) has Galileo, and China has the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, usually referred to as “BeiDou.” A careful analysis of BeiDou and the multi-GNSS environment reveals that, although BeiDou does not represent a technological coup for the Chinese, it does constitute an incremental erosion of American technical prestige by presenting a viable alternative to GPS in an important sector that billions of people around the world use every day.

Special Feature

Commander of U.S. Special Operations Command

An Interview with Richard D. Clarke

By William T. Eliason

When I came into command, I had some thoughts about priorities and where to take the command, having just come from the Joint Staff. I was also given some great guidance from Secretary [James] Mattis who put me in the position. I sat down with all the commanders and the senior enlisted leaders, and we set the priorities. Those priorities have largely remained unchanged: compete and win for the Nation, preserve and grow readiness, innovate for future threats, advance partnerships, and strengthen our force and family. While I would argue that the operating environment has changed in those years—and it’s now clear that China is our pacing threat—these priorities are timeless for SOCOM going into the future.

Army Green Berets assigned to 1st Battalion, 10th Special Forces Group, prepare to breach and enter building as part of Close Quarter Battle training in Germany, May 5, 2020 (U.S. Army/Thomas Mort)

Rediscovering the Value of Special Operations

By Isaiah Wilson III

Today, America’s special operations forces (SOF) face a moment of strategic inflection and identity reflection at the threshold crossing of two fundamental questions: How has the character of global geopolitical competition changed? What are the implications for the future roles, missions, and force structures (that is, future utility) of SOF for the 2020s through the 2050s? Even as the United States enters this age, this new era brings new demands of striking a rebalance from its focus for the past two decades on countering terrorism, violent extremist organizations (VEOs), and insurgencies to coping with threats of confrontations between so-called Great Powers. Tomorrow’s special operations and SOF must adjust accordingly.

Air Force special tactics operators assigned to 24th Special Operations Wing conduct hoist operations with Navy MH-60 Seahawk aircrew members assigned to Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron Nine, during Emerald Warrior 21.1, at Hurlburt Field, Florida, February 18, 2021 (U.S. Air Force/Edward Coddington)

Making the Case for a Joint Special Operations Profession

By Isaiah Wilson III and C. Anthony Pfaff

This article seeks to introduce for consideration and debate this question of whether there is now a need for a formal joint special operations forces (JSOF) profession. Claiming a jurisdiction within the context of international competition will place SOF in a better position to build trust and assure autonomy. Doing so will require clarity on what counts as expert knowledge (as opposed to skills and tasks) and the necessary institutional development to certify SOF professionals in the application of this knowledge.

Navy divers assigned to Naval Special Warfare unit raise hooked ladder during training exercise at Silver Strand Training Complex, San Diego, California, January 23, 2022 (U.S. Navy/Alex Perlman)

What Is JSOU? Then, Now, and Next

By David M. Dudas, Bethany Fidermutz, and Amie Lonas

The Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) was formally organized in 2000 as a Department of Defense applied learning educational activity modeled after corporate universities. JSOU’s mission is to prepare special operations forces (SOF) professionals to address strategic and operational challenges, arming them with the ability to think through problems with knowledge, insight, and foresight. JSOU’s genesis came only 8 months before the tragic events and watershed moment of September 11, 2001.


Members of China’s People’s Liberation Army attend flag-raising ceremony at Tiananmen Square, in Beijing, China, June 16, 2021 (Reuters/Tingshu Wang)

Persistent Knowledge Gaps in the Chinese Defense Budget

By Frederico Bartels

To a large extent, defense budget transparency is an area in which the United States leads the world; the United States and other nations should publicly engage and push the PRC to meet a similar standard. The UN Military Spending database is a great place to start creating this pressure, especially because it is a mechanism that the PRC utilized until 2017. This push would have to be part of a broader effort to get the Chinese to become more transparent—a significant change in behavior for them.

F-15C Eagle assigned to 48th Fighter Wing conducts aerial
operations in support of Bomber Task Force Europe 20-2 over
Keflavik, Iceland, March 16, 2020 (U.S. Air Force/Matthew Plew)

U.S. European Command Theater Infrastructure Plan: Aligning U.S. Requirements with European Capability and Resources

By Jon-Paul Depreo and Scott P. Raymond

This article explores U.S. European Command's conceptual framework for the theater infrastructure plan (TIP), which will support national military strategy, improve convergence with European allies and partners, and reduce risk to military mission and force. The adoption of a deliberate infrastructure planning strategy at the theater level should provide resource efficiencies and flexibility to reach desired conditions of securing the Euro-Atlantic region, achieving a competitive edge, supporting North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) credible deterrence and defense, and enabling U.S. global power projection.

Two U.S. Air Force F-35A Lightning IIs assigned to Hill
Air Force Base, Utah, and two Dassault Rafales assigned to
Saint-Dizier–Robinson Air Base, France, break formation during
flight over France, May 18, 2021, as part of exercise Atlantic
Trident 21 (U.S. Air Force/Alexander Cook)

All Quiet on the Eastern Front: NATO Civil-Military Deterrence of Russian Hybrid Warfare

By Andrew Underwood, Andrew Emery, Paul Haynsworth, and Jennifer Barnes

Building on NATO’s work, thinking, and publications on countering hybrid/gray zone warfare, the analysis presented here provides a framework on the Soviet and contemporary Russian methods within the current operational environment. It then proposes specific actions that NATO must adopt to impose costs on or deny benefits to Russia for employing these tactics, while also encouraging Russian restraint against future hybrid warfare.


Capture of Monterey [sic], on September 21–24, 1846, during Mexican-American War, at Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico; lithograph by Adolphe Jean-Baptiste Bayot, after drawing by Carl Nebel, 1851 (George Kendall and Carl Nebel)

Improvised Partnerships: U.S. Joint Operations in the Mexican-American War

By Nathan A. Jennings

From 1846 to 1848, the United States and Mexico fought a controversial war to decide which of the great republics would be the dominant power in North America. Featuring a series of U.S invasions that spanned from San Diego to Veracruz, the 26-month contest included bloody set-piece battles between national armies, aggressive maritime blockades and amphibious assaults along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, and prolonged occupations that invited a savage guerrilla resistance. As historian K. Jack Bauer stated in his foundational study, The Mexican War, the conflict was “fought with doggedness by the soldiers and sailors of both nations under the leadership of brilliant and inept commanders,” as political leaders struggled over differing ideas of a “reasonable political settlement.

Book Reviews

Leap of Faith

Leap of Faith: Hubris, Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy Tragedy

Reviewed by Andrew J. Forney

For a generation of national security professionals and military officers, reading about the run-up to the Iraq War can feel like watching a bureaucratic horror movie. After almost two decades, we know what is lurking behind the faulty assumptions, and reading ever more quickly, page after page, we wonder if this time the toxic brew of naivete and hubris will not lead us down the tortured path that we know in our rational minds it will. Closing our books about that war—and Michael Mazarr’s Leap of Faith is among the very best volumes—we almost want to scold ourselves: We fell for the same tricks, and we ended at the same frustrating place.

The Black Banners (Declassified): How Torture Derailed the War on Terror After 9/11

The Black Banners (Declassified): How Torture Derailed the War on Terror After 9/11

Reviewed by Bryon Greenwald

This declassified/unredacted version of Ali Soufan’s 2011 edition of Black Banners is a must-read for anyone interested in terrorism, the psychology of interrogation, bureaucratic politics, and the lessons of poor leadership. Soufan demonstrates how dysfunctional U.S. intelligence services were before and after 9/11. He also demolishes the argument for the enhanced interrogation—or torture techniques—authorized by the George W. Bush administration and championed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Black Banners ranks with Steve Coll’s Ghost Wars and Lawrence Wright’s The Looming Tower as key sources for understanding al Qaeda.

Shields of the Republic: The Triumph and Peril of America’s Alliances

Shields of the Republic: The Triumph and Peril of America’s Alliances

Reviewed by James J. Townsend, Jr.

The timing of Dr. Mira Rapp-Hooper’s book, Shields of the Republic, could not be better. In my many years as a civil servant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, I would spend the first year of most new administrations explaining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to the incoming political appointees. Democrat or Republican, old Pentagon hand or neophyte, most knew something of NATO, but they arrived with some preconceived notions that were way off. That said, by the end of an administration, we usually had some real NATO pros among the appointees. Unfortunately, after a new administration took office, we would have to start all over again with the new batch.

Joint Doctrine

Force Reconnaissance Marine with Command Element, 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, sets security perimeter on starboard bridge wing during visit, board, search, and seizure exercise aboard amphibious dock landing ship USS Germantown, South China Sea, September 6, 2020 (U.S. Navy/Taylor DiMartino)

Toward Military Design: Six Ways the JP 5-0’s Operational Design Falls Short

By Andrew L. Crabb

The day after Kabul fell to the Taliban, a combatant commander reportedly went to his J5 and told him to come back within 48 hours with data on the effects that the loss of Afghanistan would have on the future of military planning. While the veracity of this account cannot be directly verified, the rumor—and the speed at which it spread—speaks to the coming scrutiny that joint planning is sure to undergo from multiple quarters. The refocus on strategic competition/crisis/conflict (among the United States, Russia, and China) and the rise of gray zone operations, along with the persistence of irregular warfare, all demand that our methodologies for conceiving and planning keep pace with the rapid evolution of our operation foci.

Joint Doctrine Update

By The Joint Staff

Joint Doctrine Update.