Dec. 1, 2011
Deterrence and Escalation in Cross-domain Operations: Where Do Space and Cyberspace Fit?
Warfare has become even more complicated since Richard Smoke wrote
this description of escalation in 1977. The National Security Space Strategy describes
space as “congested, contested, and competitive,” yet satellites underpin
U.S. military and economic power. Activity in cyberspace has permeated every
facet of human activity, including U.S. military operations, yet the prospects for
effective cyber defenses are bleak. Many other actors depend on continued access
to these domains, but not nearly as much as the United States.