Joint Force Quarterly 88

Joint Force Quarterly 88 (1st Quarter, January 2018)

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U.S. Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Equipment) Airman Hailey Barela, right, and Lt. Cmdr. Robert Maul, from Springfield, New Jersey, signal the launch of an F/A-18E Super Hornet, assigned to Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 195, on the flight deck aboard the Navy's forward-deployed aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) during the Carrier Air Wing Five fly-off in the Pacific Ocean in waters south of Japan Nov. 28, 2017. The Ronald Reagan, the flagship of Carrier Strike Group 5, provides a combat-ready force that protects and defends the collective maritime interests of allies and partners in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kenneth Abbate)

Executive Summary

By William T. Eliason

War exacts a toll over time unlike any other human experience. And meeting the demands of combat takes more than one individual’s effort, budget, and ideas to succeed. The joint force has to adapt, adjust, acquire, repurpose, retrain, recruit, and perform a whole range of other functions to continue to meet the mission of protecting our Nation, allies, and partners around the world.

Crew Chief Cpl. Stephanie Conrad, from Katy, Texas, provides tactical navigation assistance to pilots in a UH-Y Huey helicopter, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 265 (Reinforced) and embarked aboard the amphibious transport dock USS Green Bay (LPD 20),  during an amphibious raid rehearsal as a part of Talisman Saber 17. Green Bay, part of a combined U.S.-Australia-New Zealand expeditionary strike group, is undergoing a series of scenarios that will increase naval proficiencies in operating against blue-water adversarial threats and in its primary mission of launching Marine forces ashore in the littorals. Talisman Saber is a biennial U.S.-Australia bilateral exercise held off the coast of Australia meant to achieve interoperability and strengthen the U.S.-Australia alliance. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Sarah Myers/Released)

The Future Is Plural: Multiple Futures for Tomorrow's Joint Force

By F.G. Hoffman

Multidimensional challenges cannot rely on dartboards or algorithms fed by Big Data. The central question for senior leaders in defense is improving their assessment of risk in ambiguous contexts.

SOFWERX hosts Cyber Capability Expo at its newest facility in Tampa, Florida, to identify cyber technologies to meet current and future Special Operations Forces requirements, October 19, 2017 (U.S. Air Force/Barry Loo)

Multidomain Battle: Time for a Campaign of Joint Experimentation

By Kevin M. Woods and Thomas C. Greenwood

Concepts on the scale of multidomain battle (MDB) require a campaign of experimentation that provides compelling evidence for the concept by fleshing out its operational and institutional contexts.

U.S. Army Cpl. Dean Craig, deployed in support of Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve and assigned to 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, chats with the truck crew before a movement to an advise and assist patrol base in a neighborhood liberated from ISIS in Mosul, Iraq, June 8, 2017. The 2nd BCT, 82nd Abn. Div. enables their ISF partners through the advise and assist mission, contributing planning, intelligence collection and analysis, force protection, and precision fires to achieve the military defeat of ISIS. CJTF-OIR is the global Coalition to defeat ISIS in Iraq and Syria. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Jason Hull)

The Power of Partnership: Security Cooperation and Globally Integrated Logistics

By Thomas Warren Ross

Logistics ought to be substantially integrated into security cooperation efforts, and security cooperation ought to be thoughtfully integrated into the discipline of logistics. While this premise may seem obvious, it is too often overlooked or misunderstood.

An F/A-18 C Hornet assigned to Sharpshooters of Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron (VMFAT) 101 flies over the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) in the Atlantic Ocean, Jan. 24, 2013. George H.W. Bush was conducting training and carrier qualifications in the Atlantic Ocean. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kevin J. Steinberg/Released)

Surfing the Chaos: Warfighting in a Contested Cyberspace Environment

By William D. Bryant

To win in the new cyber-contested battles of the future, a combatant must still command, but let go of control and surf the chaos.

JPME Today

AMMAN, Jordan (May 11, 2017)  An Air Force Combat Controller, part of the 23rd Special Tactics Squadron, watches as a Jordanian UH-60 helicopter makes an approach during Eager Lion 2017. Eager Lion is an annual U.S. Central Command exercise in Jordan designed to strengthen military-to-military relationships between the U.S., Jordan and other international partners. This year's iteration is comprised of about 7,200 military personnel from more than 20 nations that will respond to scenarios involving border security, command and control, cyber defense and battlespace management. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Christopher Lange/Released)

The Bureaucratization of the U.S. Military Decisionmaking Process

By Milan Vego

Is risk management overemphasized in the decisionmaking process? Is caution more valued than boldness in action?

U.S. Army soldier 2nd Lt. Shelby Blad attempts to start a fire in the Northern Territory, Australia, August 30, 2016. Participants will learn survival skills during Exercise Kowari, an exercise to enhance the United States, Australia, and China’s friendship and trust, through trilateral cooperation in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Osvaldo L. Ortega III/Released)

Women, Regardless: Understanding Gender Bias in U.S. Military Integration

By Elizabeth M. Trobaugh

Regardless of whether society thinks women should be in combat, the reality is they already have been in the fight. Yet the current combat arms culture has been slow to adjust.


A U.S. Air Force pilot from the 8th Special Operations Squadron taxis a CV-22 Osprey at Avon Park, Fla., March 7, 2017 during Emerald Warrior 17. Emerald Warrior is a U.S. Special Operations Command exercise during which joint special operations forces train to respond to various threats across the spectrum of conflict. (U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Keifer)

Multidomain Battle: Converging Concepts Toward a Joint Solution

By David G. Perkins and James M. Holmes

As advancements in cyber continue to accelerate and proliferate across multiple domains, and as our potential adversaries adjust their strategies by utilizing these advancements asymmetrically in order to counter our strengths, we can no longer develop domain-specific solutions that require time and effort to synchronize and federate.

A U.S. Air National Guard C-130J Hercules aircraft equipped with the MAFFS 2 (Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System) drops a line of fire retardant on the Thomas Fire in the hills above the city of Santa Barbara, California, Dec. 13, 2017. The 146th Airlift Wing has been supporting CAL FIRE’s efforts to battle the Thomas Fire raging in Southern California. (U.S. Air National Guard photo by Staff Sgt. Nieko Carzis)

A 21st-Century Military Doctrine for America

By Steve F. Kime

We need to start thinking about a military doctrine that is appropriate to the realities the United States faces in the 21st century. Despite the growing awareness that our current military posture is out of sync with the times, no politician and no military officer could successfully confront the powerful array of vested interests in the status quo and suggest the kind of military revolution that reality requires.

U.S. Army Sgt. Lisa Swan, left, psychological specialist with 303rd psychological operations company (303rd POCO), and U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Joseph Szombathelyi, right, load master with Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 252 (VMGR-252), watch leaflets fall off of a KC-130 Super Hercules over southern Afghanistan, Aug. 28, 2013. Leaflets were dropped in support of operations to defeat insurgency influence in the area. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Demetrius Munnerlyn/Released)

The Need for an Innovative Joint Psychological Warfare Force Structure

By Richard B. Davenport

There has never been a greater historical need and better opportunity to create a strategic joint influence organization and subsequent total joint influence force structure. A unified joint influence force would be able to support and defend the Nation’s strategic interests against all propaganda efforts coming from the likes of adversarial states and nonstate actors well into the foreseeable future.


An RQ-4 Global Hawk descends during a landing after completing a sortie in support of Operation Inherent Resolve at an undisclosed location in Southwest Asia, Feb. 20, 2017. During the landing a chase car, operated by an RQ-4 Global Hawk pilot, assisted in the landing of the remotely piloted aircraft. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Tyler Woodward)

Geographic Component Network Analysis: A Methodology for Deliberately Targeting a Hybrid Adversary

By Chance A. Smith and Steve W. Rust

As the nature of the adversaries the U.S. military engages on the battlefield changes, so must our thinking on how to systematically analyze and degrade their centers of gravity. Geographic component network analysis (GCNA) enables more rapid analysis of a hybrid enemy in a focused, systematic manner to degrade the adversary’s capability to effectively govern and project combat power from defined territorial strongholds.

A Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block IIA is launched from the guided-missile destroyer USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) during a flight test off Hawaii resulting in the first intercept of a ballistic missile target by the SM-3IIA, which is being developed cooperatively by the U.S. and Japan, Feb. 3, 2017. This test also marks the first time an SM-3IIA was launched from an Aegis ship and the first intercept engagement using the Aegis Baseline 9.C2 (BMD 5.1) weapon system.

Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense: Simplifying an Increasingly Complex Problem

By Gabriel Almodovar, Daniel P. Allmacher, Morgan P. Ames III, and Chad Davies

As the complexity of air, cruise, and ballistic missile threats quickly evolves over the next 10 to 20 years, DOD must find a less complicated way to rapidly develop and integrate the Services’ integrated air and missile defense capabilities and employ them across the combatant commands boundaries.

The 45th Space Wing successfully launched a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket carrying the second Mobile User Objective System (MUOS-2) satellite for the U.S. Navy July 9, 2013, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. MUOS is the next generation narrowband military satellite communication system that supports a worldwide, multiservice population of users in the ultra-high frequency band. (Courtesy photo/Pat Corkery)

Achieving Secrecy and Surprise in a Ubiquitous ISR Environment

By Adam G. Lenfestey, Nathan Rowan, James E. Fagan, and Corey H. Ruckdeschel

As foreign and commercial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities proliferate, our ability to leverage secrecy and surprise for battlefield advantage is in danger of being severely degraded or lost altogether. We must take prudent near-term steps to address this concern.

U.S. Air Force Tech. Sgt. Johnie Tucker, 818th Mobility Support Advisory Squadron survival evasion resistance and escape specialist air advisor, demonstrates navigation skills for Kenyan Defense Force members at Laikipia Air Base, Kenya, June 23, 2016. More than 50 U.S. Air Force Airmen participated in the first African Partnership Flight in Kenya. The APF is designed for U.S. and African partner nations to work together in a learning environment to help build expertise and professional knowledge and skills in key areas such as personnel recovery command and control, survival and evasion principles and tactical combat casualty care. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Evelyn Chavez/Released)

Implementing Guidance for Security Cooperation: Overcoming Obstacles to U.S. Africa Command’s Efforts

By Andrus W. Chaney

U.S. Africa Command’s lack of operationalization of its security cooperation processes, combined with the sheer size of its area of responsibility and the significant changes with the new NDAA, create unique challenges. This article outlines four main areas where USAFRICOM can improve its efforts to operationalize and synchronize its security cooperation efforts.


The Battle Between Scipio and Hannibal at Zama, Cornelis Cort, after Giulio Romano, engraving ca. 1550–1578, Elisha Whittelsey Collection (Courtesy Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Scipio Africanus and the Second Punic War: Joint Lessons for Center of Gravity Analysis

By Kenneth T. "Max" Klima, Peter Mazzella, and Patrick B. McLaughlin

Scipio Africanus’s European and African campaigns during the Second Punic War serve as timeless lessons for joint force planners on how to conduct center of gravity (COG) analysis in support of theater and national military planning.

Book Reviews


Unwinnable: Britain’s War in Afghanistan, 2001–2014

By Carter Malkasian

For years, the British enjoyed a reputation of counterinsurgency excellence. Their campaigns—Malaya, Kenya, Oman, Northern Ireland—were hailed as successes in this difficult form of war. Afghanistan, however, turned out to be painful for the British. They committed a peak of over 9,500 troops, eventually drawing down to a few hundred by the end of 2014. They faced numerous battlefield reverses. Eventual successes were overshadowed by the arrival of 20,000 U.S. Marines. Britain’s counterinsurgency reputation came out of the campaign tarnished.

Elite Warriors

Elite Warriors: Special Operations Forces from Around the World

By Bruce McClintock

Special operations forces (SOF) have existed in some form and played roles in warfare since the advent of conventional military operations. For example, in biblical times, King David had a special forces platoon. World War II brought growth, greater recognition, and prestige for special forces like the British Commandos, Special Air Service, and the American Office of Strategic Services. The last two decades have witnessed explosive growth in various forms of unconventional or SOF.

Social Science Goes to War

Social Science Goes to War: The Human Terrain System in Iraq and Afghanistan

By Brian R. Price

The gap between academia and the military has existed at least since the early 1960s, when Project Camelot crystallized political opposition to the American military/security apparatus by activist academicians. As a result, the military/security community established its own think tanks, designed to replicate social and hard science capabilities, reducing the political noise and fallout inherent in the engagement with a potentially hostile academic community. On the other side of the divide, many academics reacted with anger to social scientists engaged in military activity, political beliefs fusing with concerns of academic freedom and fanned with the flames of opposition to the Vietnam War in what they saw as colonialism and rampant militarization of American society.

Joint Doctrine

A COG Concept for Winning More Than Just Battles

By Jacob Barfoed

While current U.S. doctrine makes the center of gravity (COG) concept the centerpiece in operational planning, there is a broad call for either revising or killing the concept. However, if the COG concept is to remain the centerpiece in military planning, it must not only help link actions, effects, and objectives but also link the JFC level of command with the national strategic level of command.

PACIFIC OCEAN (June 04, 2015) Engineman 3rd Class Andrea Gasca completes a written damage control test aboard Whidbey Island-class amphibious dock landing ship USS Rushmore (LSD 47). The Essex Amphibious Ready Group is currently operating in the 7th fleet area of responsibility.  (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Chelsea Troy Milburn/Released)

Department of Defense Terminology Program

By George E. Katsos

The Department of Defense (DOD) Terminology Program was formalized in 2009 by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and falls under the responsibility of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS).1 The program is overseen by the director of Joint Force Development (DJ7) to improve communications and mutual understanding through the standardization of military and associated terminology within DOD, with other U.S. Government departments and agencies, and between the United States and international partners. It includes U.S. participation in North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) terminology development as well as other terminology forums.

170721-N-UX013-703 CORAL SEA (July 21, 2017) The amphibious dock landing ship USS Ashland (LSD 48) patrols waters off the coast of Australia under a stars-lit night during Talisman Saber 17. Talisman Saber is a biennial U.S.-Australia bilateral exercise held off the coast of Australia meant to achieve interoperability and strengthen the U.S.-Australia alliance. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Jonathan Clay/Released)

Born Multinational: Capability Solutions for Joint, Multinational, and Coalition Operations

By Charles W. Robinson

U.S. military operations are conducted in a multinational environment. Given the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff’s emphasis on working with allies and other international partners, there are many advantages to certain capabilities being born multinational. A multinational development team offers the benefits of both inherent interoperability and a broad set of perspectives, insights, and knowledge sources.

Joint Doctrine Update

By The Joint Staff

Joint Doctrine Update.