About the Contributors

A Persistent Fire


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Chaplain (Colonel) Timothy S. Mallard, USA, Ph.D., is a Minister of Word and Sacrament in the Evangelical Presbyterian Church. A member of the International Society of Military Ethics and the International Dietrich Bonhoeffer Society, he is a graduate and Grierson Prize recipient as Distinguished Army Master Strategist from the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. He is also a graduate and former Eisenhower Fellow from the U.S. Army War College. Since 1988, Chaplain Mallard has deployed to combat as a battalion, brigade, and division chaplain, including with the 101st Airborne and 1st Infantry Divisions, and he holds the Bronze Star Medal (two awards) and the Combat Action Badge. Having served as the inaugural director of the Recruiting and Endorser Relations Directorate at the Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Washington, DC, he currently serves as the Command Chaplain for U.S. Army Europe and 7th Army. Chaplain Mallard holds a bachelor of arts from Stetson University, a master of divinity from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, a master of theology from Columbia Theological Seminary, a master of strategic studies from the U.S. Army War College, and a doctor of philosophy in Christian ethics from the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.

Chaplain (Major) Nathan H. White, USAR, Ph.D., is a chaplain and the executive director of the Institute for Faith and Resilience, a nonprofit research and community outreach organization. He holds degrees from Wheaton College and Samford University and holds a doctor of philosophy in applied theology from Durham University in the United Kingdom. Chaplain White’s assignments include with the 1st Infantry Division and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), with deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. He currently serves at the Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Washington, DC, and is a recipient of the Bronze Star Medal, Combat Action Badge, and Air Assault Badge. He has been published by Oxford University Press and Springer and is co-editor of the forthcoming book Biblical and Theological Visions of Resilience: Pastoral and Clinical Insights (Routledge).

Victoria J. Barnett, Ph.D., is director of the Programs on Ethics, Religion, and the Holocaust at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. She is a graduate of Indiana University, Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, and George Mason University. She is the author of For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest Against Hitler (Oxford University Press, 1992); Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity During the Holocaust (Praeger, 1999), “After Ten Years”: Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Our Times (Fortress Press, 2017); editor/translator of Wolfgang Gerlach’s And the Witnesses Were Silent: The Confessing Church and the Jews (University of Nebraska Press, 2000); and the new revised edition of Eberhard Bethge’s Dietrich Bonhoeffer: A Biography (Fortress Press, 2000). From 2004 to 2014, she served as one of the general editors of the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works, the English translation series of Bonhoeffer’s complete works published by Fortress Press. She has written numerous articles and book chapters on the churches and the challenges of ethical leadership during the Holocaust.

Nigel Biggar, Ph.D., is the Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology at the University of Oxford, where he also directs the McDonald Centre for Theology, Ethics, and Public Life. He holds a bachelor of arts in modern history from Oxford University, a master of arts in Christian studies from Regent College Vancouver, and a master of arts and doctor of philosophy in Christian theology and ethics from the University of Chicago. Before assuming his current post, he occupied chairs in theology at the University of Leeds and at Trinity College Dublin. A former president of the Society for the Study of Christian Ethics in the United Kingdom, he has sat on the ethics committee of the Royal College of Physicians and on a Royal Society working party on population growth. He was appointed a member of the Pontifical Academy for Life in 2017. His publications include In Defense of War (Oxford, 2013), Behaving in Public: How to Do Christian Ethics (Eerdmans, 2011), Religious Voices in Public Places (Oxford, 2009), Aiming to Kill: The Ethics of Suicide and Euthanasia (DLT, 2004), Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict (Georgetown University Press, 2003), and Cities of Gods: Faith, Politics, & Pluralism in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Greenwood, 1986). His most recent book is Between Kin and Cosmopolis: An Ethic of the Nation (James Clarke/Wipf & Stock, 2014). He has written on the possibility of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Northern Ireland in the Irish Times, on the Iraq War in the Financial Times, on Scottish independence and on Rhodes, race, and empire in Standpoint magazine, on the ethics of Trident in The Scottish Review, on the British military’s action against the so-called Islamic State in Syria, and on Charlie Hebdo and freedom of speech in The Times. He has lectured at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and the F├╝hrungsakademie der Bundeswehr at Hamburg.

Paul Coyer, Ph.D., serves as a research professor at the Institute of World Politics, as well as an associate professor at the Ecole Speciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the French equivalent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he lectures on U.S. foreign and national security policy and on the role of religion and culture in international affairs. Dr. Coyer is a contributor to Forbes, writing on foreign and national security policy, and is a contributing editor of Providence: A Journal of Christianity and American Foreign Policy. His work has appeared in leading publications in the United States and around the world, including the Washington Times, Azeri Today (Azerbaijan), and the Kyiv Post (Ukraine), as well as policy-oriented journals, including Conflits: Revue de Geopolitique (France), and by academic publishers such as Oxford University Press. Dr. Coyer’s graduate degrees are from Yale University, where he earned a master of arts in theological ethics, and the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he earned a master of arts in the history of the international relations of East Asia and a doctor of philosophy in the history of Sino-American relations. Dr. Coyer is a member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies.

Graham Fairclough, D.Phil., is a research associate in the Changing Character of Warfare Centre and the Oxford Internet Institute at Oxford University, where he recently completed a doctor of philosophy in cyber security. Prior to commencing his studies, he was a career soldier in the British army, reaching the rank of colonel. Throughout his career, he was employed on intelligence and security duties, which included operational tours in Northern Ireland, Belize, the Balkans, Iraq, and Cyprus. Senior appointments include on the United Kingdom’s Permanent Joint Headquarters from 2007 to 2010, where he was responsible for the delivery of intelligence architecture and capability in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as the first chief of staff to the United Kingdom’s Chief of Defence Intelligence from 2010 to 2013. He has served in operational appointments with the Government Communications Headquarters and has worked closely in a number of roles with other elements of the United Kingdom’s intelligence community and its international partners. Dr. Fairclough possesses a master of science in knowledge management systems from Cranfield University and master of arts in defense studies from King’s College London. He is a participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s future Urbanisation Warfare Programme, where he provides specialist advice on the operational and tactical requirement for cyber capability and its potential employment by commanders. He is a member of Allied Command Transformation Innovation Team in a cyber capacity. In addition, he is a standing member of the United Kingdom’s Chief of Defence Staff Strategy Forum and an advisor to the Ministry of Defence’s Global Strategic Trends Programme.

Lieutenant Colonel Michael H. Hoffman, USA (Ret.), JD, is an attorney with extensive experience and publications in the field of international law. He is also an associate professor at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. He holds a bachelor of arts from The Ohio State University and a doctor of law from Southern Methodist University School of Law. His experience in the field of international law spans duty as a judge advocate, a delegate for the International Committee of the Red Cross, and an advisor to U.S. and nongovernmental delegations at international law conferences.

Chaplain (Lieutenant Colonel) Mark C. Lee, USA, D.Min., Ph.D., is an Episcopal priest, having served in ordained ministry for over 18 years. He has experience in parish ministry, academia, and banking and finance. Chaplain Lee is currently a certified educator candidate with Accredited Clinical Pastoral Education. Previously, he served as the curriculum developer and instructor at U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School, teaching courses on moral injury, combat/emergency medical ministry, and other topics. His previous military assignments include deputy garrison chaplain/resource manager at U.S. Army Garrison Yongsan; brigade chaplain at 1st Armored Brigade Command, 2nd Infantry Division, at Camp Hovey; 98th Medical Detachment (Combat Stress Control) at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington; and operations chaplain at 14th Engineer Battalion, I Corps. Chaplain Lee has experienced two combat deployments. His formal education includes a doctor of philosophy from the University of Aberdeen, a doctor of ministry from Erskine Theological Seminary, a master of divinity from Princeton Theological Seminary, and a master of business administration and bachelor of science from the University of Southern California. Chaplain Lee is married to Kyo Young Park and father to Nicole and Lauren.

Marc LiVecche, Ph.D., is the executive editor of Providence: A Journal of Christianity and American Foreign Policy. He is also Scholar of Christian Ethics at the Institute on Religion and Democracy, research scholar at the Philos Project, and the McDonald Visiting Scholar at the McDonald Centre for Theology, Ethics, and Public Life in Christ Church College at Oxford University. Dr. LiVecche completed a doctor of philosophy in theological and political ethics at the University of Chicago. While at Chicago, Dr. LiVecche worked under the supervision of the political theorist Jean Bethke Elshtain until her death in 2013. His dissertation, titled “With Malice Toward None: The Moral Ground for Killing in War,” takes a classic just war view of the question of killing in its theological and ethical dimensions in part as a response to the crisis of moral injury. Prior to his work in Chicago, Dr. LiVecche completed a master of arts in theology from Wheaton College and, before that, spent 12 years doing a variety of things in Central Europe—including leading seminars on ethics onsite at the former Auschwitz II–Birkenau Nazi concentration camp in Poland, an experience that allowed him to continue his undergraduate study of the Shoah, a study that helped permanently inoculate him against pacifism.

Colonel John Mark Mattox, USA (Ret.), Ph.D., is a senior research fellow in the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Institute for National Strategic Studies, at the National Defense University in Washington, DC, where he directs the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Graduate Fellowship Program. He was the inaugural General Hugh Shelton Chair in Ethics at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Dr. Mattox is also the former dean of the Defense Threat Reduction University and commandant of the Defense Nuclear Weapons School. He served on three continents as a field artillery officer and is a veteran of the First Gulf War. He holds degrees from Brigham Young University, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the U.S. Army War College, and a doctor of philosophy in philosophy and semiotic studies from Indiana University. He has served on the faculty of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, the University of Maryland, and Missouri State University.

General James C. McConville, USA, currently serves as the 40th Chief of Staff of the Army. He previously served as the 36th Vice Chief of Staff of the Army from June 16, 2017 to July 26, 2019. General McConville served as commanding general of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), where he also served as the commanding general of Combined Joint Task Force–101, Operation Enduring Freedom; deputy commanding general (Support) of Combined Joint Task Force–101, Operation Enduring Freedom; commander of 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Operation Iraqi Freedom; commander of 2nd Squadron, 17th Calvary Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault); and commander of C Troop, 2nd Squadron, 9th Cavalry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division (Light). His key staff assignments include the U.S. Army deputy chief of staff, G-1; chief of legislative liaison; executive officer to the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army; G-3 for 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault); J5 strategic planner for U.S. Special Operations Command; S-3 for 25th Combat Aviation Brigade; S-3 for 5th Squadron, 9th Cavalry; and S-3 for Flight Concepts Division. He holds a bachelor of science from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and a master in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. He was also a National Security Fellow at Harvard University in 2002.

Major Patrick Naughton, USAR, is a Medical Service Corps officer and a military historian. He is currently serving as a legislative liaison to the U.S. Senate and is a former interagency fellow. He holds a master of military arts and science from the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, where he was an Art of War Scholar, and a bachelor of arts in history from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Eric D. Patterson, Ph.D., is dean of the Robertson School of Government at Regent University and a research fellow in the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs at Georgetown University, where he previously served as a full-time faculty member. He holds degrees from the University of California at Santa Barbara, Evangel University, and the University of Wales at Aberystwyth. Dr. Patterson has served for more than 20 years in command positions in the Air National Guard, served as White House Fellow, and twice worked in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs at the State Department. At the State Department, he worked on postconflict issues in, and traveled to, Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Congo, Angola, and elsewhere. He is the author or editor of more than a dozen books, including Just American Wars: Ethical Dilemmas in U.S. Military History (Routledge, 2018), Ending Wars Well: Order, Justice, and Conciliation in Contemporary Post-Conflict (Yale University Press, 2012), Ethics Beyond War’s End (Georgetown University Press, 2012), Debating the War of Ideas, co-edited with John Gallagher (Palgrave MacMillan, 2009), Military Chaplains in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Beyond: Advisement and Leader Engagement in Highly Religious Environments (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), Just War Thinking: Morality and Pragmatism in the Struggle against Contemporary Threats (Lexington Books, 2007), and Politics in a Religious World: Building a Religiously Literate U.S. Foreign Policy (Bloomsbury Academic, 2011).

Colonel C. Anthony Pfaff, USA (Ret.), Ph.D., is the Research Professor for the Military Profession and Ethics in the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College. Dr. Pfaff previously served as director for Iraq on the National Security Council staff and on the Policy Planning staff at the Department of State. Dr. Pfaff holds a bachelor of arts in philosophy and economics from Washington and Lee University, a master of arts in philosophy from Stanford University, a master of science in national resource management from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and a doctor of philosophy from Georgetown University. He is the author of “Proxy War Ethics,” Journal of National Security Law & Policy 9, no. 2 (August 2017), as well as numerous other works on the topic of military ethics.

The Reverend Dr. (Wing Commander) David Richardson is a British chaplain serving in the Royal Air Force (RAF). He was originally ordained into the Church of Ireland. A graduate of the universities of Edinburgh, Dublin, Belfast, and King’s College London, he is currently completing further study at Cardiff University. Recently appointed as staff chaplain to the Chaplain-in-Chief, he has served on a variety of RAF flying stations and training units, and has served as an instructor at the United Kingdom’s Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre. His operational experience includes tours across Afghanistan and Iraq. Married to Ruth, a former teacher, since 1999, they have two sons.

Michael Snape, Ph.D., is the inaugural Michael Ramsey Professor of Anglican Studies at Durham University in the United Kingdom and is an ecumenical lay canon of Durham Cathedral. He earned a first-class bachelor of arts in history and theology and was awarded a doctor of philosophy from University of Birmingham. Since the late 1990s, he has specialized in the study of Christianity and conflict from approximately 1700 to the present. He was Reader in Religion, War, and Society at the University of Birmingham before being appointed to the Department of Theology and Religion at Durham in 2015. Professor Snape is the historian of the Royal Army Chaplains’ Department and a historical adviser to the Young Men’s Christian Association England and the Bible Society. Since 2009, he has co-organized the Amport Conference on Religion and War in the Modern World, which is held annually in the Armed Forces’ Chaplaincy Centre, a constituent college of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. His major publications include God and the British Soldier: Religion and the British Army in the First and Second World Wars (Routledge, 2007), The Royal Army Chaplains’ Department, 1796–1953: Clergy Under Fire (Boydell Press, 2008), and God and Uncle Sam: Religion and America’s Armed Forces in World War II (Boydell Press, 2015).

Commander Thomas J. Statler, USN, is the command chaplain in the Joint Forces Staff College at the National Defense University. He teaches a military ethics elective on the just war tradition and the profession of arms and is the faculty ethics advisor. Chaplain Statler earned a bachelor of science in secondary education, a master of divinity, and a master of theology. After receiving his naval professional code in ethics, he also taught two ethics electives at the Naval Postgraduate School from 2008 to 2011. Chaplain Statler is certified in Joint Professional Military Education Phase II and is a charter member of the Navy Chaplain Corps Ethics Community of Interest.

Padre Andrew Totten, MBE, was born in Belfast and educated at Queen’s University, Trinity College Dublin, and Cardiff University. Ordained as an Anglican priest in the Church of Ireland, he has been a British army chaplain since 1994. Serving at regimental, brigade, and divisional levels, his operational experience covers Bosnia, Kosovo, Ulster, Iraq, and Afghanistan. He graduated from the Royal College of Defence Studies in 2017 with the individual prize for strategic analysis. His current assignment is as principal at the Armed Forces’ Chaplaincy Centre, a constituent college of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. He is an Honorary Chaplain to the Queen.