Security Considerations for a Warming Arctic
By James Keagle and Christopher Mann
July 16, 2012 —
In the past, extreme conditions deterred maritime exploration throughout much of the Arctic. This left huge frozen reserves of oil, natural gas, and mineral wealth virtually untouched by the world’s five major Arctic States: Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States. Now, global climate changes are altering human accessibility to these untapped resources, creating new possibilities for trade, development, and conflict. In this 2012 Working Paper, Dr. Jim Keagle and Mr. Christopher Mann survey the issues most relevant to Department of Defense policy-makers.