Joint Force Quarterly 89

Joint Force Quarterly 89

(2nd Quarter, April 2018)

Information as a Joint Function

  • The By-With-Through Approach
  • Security, Climate Change, and Urbanization

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General Dunford works aboard C-130 aircraft at Bagram Airfield before visit to Task Force–Southwest at Camp Shorab, Helmand Province, March 22, 2018 (DOD/Dominique A. Pineiro)

From the Chairman: The Character of War and Strategic Landscape Have Changed

By General Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.

Over the past two decades, the strategic landscape has changed dramatically. While the fundamental nature of war has not changed, the pace of change and modern technology, coupled with shifts in the nature of geopolitical competition, have altered the character of war in the 21st century. To keep pace with the changing character of war, we must globally integrate the way we plan, employ the force, and design the force of the future.


American M1 Abrams and Romanian TR-85 tanks and personnel on training ground in Romania as part of Operation Atlantic Resolve, supporting security and stability in Europe, April 2017 (NATO)

Executive Summary

By William T. Eliason

What kind of force does the United States need in order to meet its mission of protecting the Nation? How do we preserve our working relationships with allies and partners? What about the ongoing issue of readiness needs versus force modernization? No matter how the future turns out, the United States and the joint force will continue to be central elements of how the world is shaped.

Airmen from 116th Air Control Wing, Georgia Air National Guard, monitor surveillance data while flying night mission aboard E-8C Joint STARS, Robins
Air Force Base, Georgia, July 2017 (U.S. Air National Guard/Roger Parsons/Portions of photo have been blurred for security and privacy concerns)

Introducing Information as a Joint Function

By Alexus G. Grynkewich

In July 2017, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a change to Joint Publication (JP) 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, introducing information as a new and seventh joint function. This issuance portends significant changes in how the joint force will plan and execute transregional, multidomain, and multifunctional operations. As such, it represents an opportunity to reimagine what “combined arms” means in 21st-century warfare.

Information Systems Technicians monitor communication systems aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt, January 2018, Arabian Gulf (U.S. Navy/Alex Corona)

Paradigm Change: Operational Art and the Information Joint Function

By Scott K. Thomson and Christopher E. Paul

The need for this addition to the joint functions has become increasingly obvious to military leaders over time. It reveals itself in the difficulty of addressing gray zone challenges. During a recent effort by the Joint Staff to update Joint Publication (JP) 3-13, Information Operations, leaders recognized that the joint force was already attempting to use information as a function and that the time to institutionalize information as a function was therefore overdue.

Soldier with Expeditionary Cyber Electromagnetic Activities Team, 781st Military Intelligence Battalion, conducts cyberspace operations at National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California, May 9, 2018 (U.S. Army Cyber Command/Bill Roche)

The Practical Implications of Information as a Joint Function

By Gregory C. Radabaugh

The integration of the Information as a Joint Function (IJF) with the other six joint functions offers new opportunities for developing and conducting operational art and design. IJF will result in the development of executable plans to deal with future conflicts that are TMM in nature. The ultimate result will be that joint force commanders are able to dominate the informational aspect of their operating environment (the IE) the same way they dominate land, sea, air space, and cyberspace.

Air Force pararescuemen assigned to 48th Rescue Squadron and French air commandos provide cover after moving simulated patient into Eurocopter EC-725 for aerial transport during personnel recovery scenario in southern Arizona, November 7, 2017, as part of Angel Thunder (U.S. Air Force/Andrew Lee)

Globally Integrated Exercises: Optimizing Joint Force C2 Structure

By Stephen M. Gallotta, James A. Covington, and Timothy B. Lynch

The limitations in the Globally Integrated Exercise construct should not dissuade its utilization. Like any new concept, it requires the necessary time, space, and iterations to meet the Chairman’s intent. There is no shortage of recommendations for tackling the globally integrated operations challenges.

Soldiers with 254th Regiment (Combat Arms), New Jersey Army National Guard, fly a RQ-11B Raven small unmanned aircraft system at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey, July 11, 2016 (U.S. Air National Guard/Mark C. Olsen)

Moore’s Law and the Challenge of Counter-sUAS Doctrine

By Mark D. Newell

In 1965, Gordon Moore, co-founder of the Intel Corporation, made his now famous prediction that the “number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months.” More than 50 years later, his prediction has not only held true, but also the implications of what is now called Moore’s Law define the combat environment for the joint force. The continual miniaturization, mass production, proliferation, and improvement of integrated circuits and microprocessors have introduced powerful computing technology into every aspect of modern life.

Sailor stands watch in combat information center on dock landing ship USS Harpers Ferry in South China Sea, August 4, 2016, supporting security in Indo-Asia-Pacific region (U.S. Navy/Zachary Eshleman)

Outmatched Shortfalls in Countering Threat Networks

By David Richard Doran

Understanding how adversaries use threat networks globally to compete with us below the threshold of traditional armed conflict is a critical first step to identifying opportunities to exploit, disrupt, or degrade threat networks. However, the increasing convergence of legitimate and illicit networks complicates our ability to gain the level of understanding required to do this effectively.

Special Feature

Afghan National Security Forces role players talk to combat team leader assigned to 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade during simulated event at Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana, January 13, 2018 (U.S. Army/Zoe Garbarino)

An Interview with Joseph L. Votel

By William T. Eliason

The way that I think of by, with, and through is another way to talk about ends, ways, and means. I look at this idea as a way to approach some of this. That’s where we arrive at the discussion of by, with, and through as an operational approach. We apply it on a broad scale now, and I do think that it merits becoming doctrine.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technician assigned to Commander, Task Group 56.1, explains underwater navigation system to Kuwait naval force technicians during training evolution as part of exercise Eager Response 18, Mohammed Al-Ahmad Naval Base, Kuwait, January 8, 2018 (U.S. Navy/Louis Rojas)

The By-With-Through Operational Approach

By Joseph L. Votel and Eero R. Keravuori

The U.S. military must organize, resource, and train the joint force to operate by, with, and through with greater efficiency and effectiveness with various types of partners and whole-of-government involvement. Executing this approach in current and future multipolar and resource-constrained environments requires common understanding and the development of joint force doctrine.

Infantry squad with 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, assaults first of two buildings during platoon live-fire lane, January 28, 2018, during Omani-U.S. exercise Inferno Creek 2018, near Thumrait, Oman (U.S. Army/David L. Nye)

The By-With-Through Approach: An Army Component Perspective

By Michael X. Garrett, William H. Dunbar, Bryan C. Hilferty, and Robert R. Rodock

Land forces in U.S. Central Command have adopted an operational approach of “by, with, and through” (BWT) to achieve this endstate. This article provides the USARCENT perspective on how it accomplishes its mission with BWT as the operational approach and demonstrates the need for the joint force to come to a common understanding of what executing operations within a BWT operational approach, and all associated terms, means.

Iraqi Security Forces member provides security near patrol base in Mosul, June 22, 2017 (U.S. Army/Rachel Diehm)

Fighting the Islamic State By, With, and Through: How Mattered as Much as What

By J. Patrick Work

In January 2017, the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, deployed to bolster the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) in the campaign to annihilate the so-called Islamic State. How we advised ISF commanders was as important as what we advised them to do in order to win.

Peshmerga soldier loads ammunition into magazine in preparation for squad-based training near Erbil, Iraq, October 14, 2015, as part of Combined Joint Task Force–Operation Inherent Resolve (U.S. Army/Tristan Bolden)

Sacrifice, Ownership, Legitimacy: Winning Wars By, With, and Through Host-Nation Security Forces

By John B. Richardson IV and John Q. Bolton

Speed and tactical efficiency do not win civil conflict; host-nation legitimacy combined with eventual tactical victory does. These facts necessitate a conditions-based approach.

Commander of Special Operations Joint Task Force–Operation Inherent Resolve provides assistant gunner support to member of 5th Special Forces Group during counter-ISIS operations in southern Syria, November 22, 2017 (U.S. Army/Jacob Connor)

Laying the Foundation for a Strategic By-With-Through Approach

By Edward F. Dorman III and Christopher P. Townsend

Logistics interoperability is critical to the future success of global operations responding to transregional threats, but it requires dedicated efforts in logistics security cooperation to build the foundation for a strategic BWT approach.


Volunteers from Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, Naval Post Graduate School, and Middlebury Institute, along with cultural performers from all over California, celebrated Monterey’s 3rd Annual Language Capital of the World Festival on Sunday, May 7, 2017 (U.S. Army/Amber K. Whittington)

Why Not a Joint Security Force Assistance Command?

By John Francis Jakubowski

The David L. Boren National Security Education Act of 1991 provides that the future national security and economic well-being of the United States will depend substantially on the ability of its citizens to communicate and compete by knowing the languages and cultures of other countries. Consistent with the law, implementation guidance over the years has been clear, and increasingly more urgent.

Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technicians look on as Icelandic coastguard helicopter takes off from field in Iceland during exercise Northern
Challenge 2017 (NATO/Laurence Cameron)

A Holistic Approach to Problem-Solving

By Stephen F. Nowak

Despite George Santayana’s warning—“Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it”—we continue to forget what we have learned and fall into bad habits. Although we have already determined better ways to make decisions and solve problems, we tend to forget them.

Swedish sailors assigned to HSwMS Karlsand climb aboard USS Oscar Austin, which supports theater security cooperation and forward naval presence in U.S. 6th Fleet area of operations, Baltic Sea, September 26, 2017 (U.S. Navy/Ryan Utah Kledzik)

The Importance of Lessons Learned in Joint Force Development

By Gwendolyn R. DeFilippi, Stephen Francis Nowak, and Bradford Harlow Baylor

The importance of gathering, developing, and disseminating joint lessons learned cannot be overemphasized. Today, we need real-world lessons learned by the deployed young officer who is experiencing what works, what does not, and what could—if certain changes were made. This is mission of the Joint Staff Joint Force Development Directorate’s Joint Lessons Learned Division (JLLD).


After serious flooding in Haiti’s north, its government, with support of United Nations Mission in Haiti and other UN agencies, responded with evacuations, temporary shelters, and distribution of food and supplies, November 11, 2014 (UN/Logan Abassi)

Climate Change and Urbanization: Challenges to Global Security and Stability

By Ronak B. Patel and David P. Polatty IV

Two global trends that present monumental new challenges for civil-military coordination in humanitarian crises are urbanization—the growth of cities across the world—and climate change. The following article explains how these two trends and their interactive effects will increasingly complicate and test civil-military coordination in humanitarian crises.

General Dunford walks past B-52 aircraft during tour of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, February 8, 2018 (DOD/Dominique A. Pineiro)

Structuring Airpower to Win in 2030: Designing a Joint Division of Labor Between Land- and Sea-Based Combat Aviation

By Josh Wiitala and Alexander Wright

The lessons learned during nearly a decade of concept development must be translated into a joint force structure capable of defeating antiaccess/area-denial (A2/AD) and preserving America’s power projection advantage. However, such a force structure will only be effective if it is pursued through a joint approach to acquisitions.

North Carolina Army National Guardsman with Detachment 4, Recruiting and Retention Battalion, Joint Force Headquarters, exits simulated shoot house, pulling litter with simulated casualty, as competitor in 2013 Army National Guard Best Warrior Competition, Little Rock Arkansas, July 23, 2013 (U.S. Army/Betty Boyce)

Continuing the Big Data Ethics Debate: Enabling Senior Leader Decisionmaking

By Paul B. Lester, Pedro S. Wolf, Christopher J. Nannini, Daniel C. Jensen, and Delores Johnson Davis

In the coming years, each Service will likely pursue a human capital data analytics solution set that best meets its needs. Regardless of each Service’s chosen path, the paramount requirement before us all is to create systems that balance the data analytic needs of leaders while strengthening the bond of trust with our Servicemembers.

Book Reviews

Illusions of Victory: The Anbar Awakening and the Rise of the Islamic State

Illusions of Victory (Book Review)

By Conrad C. Crane

In Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past (Columbia University Press, 2006), Kimberly Zisk Marten recounts the dismal record of Western military interventions that could achieve temporary stability but not foster any lasting political change. Her solution is to lower expectations while extending presence; outsiders cannot shape the course of internal political change but can maintain security for the lengthy period required for equilibrium to be restored after a society is disrupted.

Anatomy of a Campaign: The British Fiasco in Norway, 1940

Anatomy of a Campaign (Book Review)

By Williamson Murray

John Kiszely had an outstanding career in the British army. As a major, he won the Military Cross while leading his company of Scots Guards in the attack on Tumbledown Mountain in the last days of the Falklands War. During his career, he served in the bureaucracy in Whitehall as the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff and served stints in British operations in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, and Iraq, finally retiring as a lieutenant general. He has seen war at both ends: the hard, sharp end of combat and the making and coordinating of policy and operations.

America’s First General Staff: A Short History of the Rise and Fall of the General Board of the Navy, 1900–1950

America’s First General Staff (Book Review)

By Randy Papadopoulos

This trim book explains the full course of the U.S. Navy’s General Board, its institutional forum for innovation, during the period from 1900 to 1950. To remedy challenges identified during the Spanish-American War, Navy Secretary John D. Long established the board as an experiment. The Secretary realized he needed military advice, so he chose a mix of up-and-coming Navy officers, the head of the Bureau of Navigation that managed careers, and one Marine officer, all led by the redoubtable Admiral George Dewey, to offer it.

Joint Doctrine

Two Navy MH-60S Sea Hawk helicopters from USS George H.W. Bush take off during joint fire exercise with Army AH-64 Apaches from 3rd Battalion, 159th Attack Reconnaissance Battalion, 42nd Combat Aviation Brigade, and
Air Force joint terminal attack controllers from 82nd Expeditionary Air Operations Squadron, on July 8, 2014, near Camp Buehring, Kuwait (New York Army National Guard/Harley Jelis)

Preparing for Tomorrow’s Fight: Joint Concepts and Future Readiness

By Andrew J. Loiselle

Military forces that quickly adapt to change usually prevail. It is difficult to adapt in the near term, more so when there is an extended time horizon, but not adapting can exact a heavy toll in blood and treasure. The high cost of not adjusting to new situations underlies the stereotypical conservatism of military organizations, and it is borne in their propensity to lean heavily on the lessons of the last war and eschew radical change. But those who do not try to anticipate change risk surrendering the initiative on the future battlefield.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 8 and Norwegian army explosive ordnance disposal team participate in cold-weather endurance ruck march during Exercise Arctic Specialist 2017, Ramsund, Norway, February 5, 2017 (U.S. Navy/Seth Wartak)

Exploring the Future Operating Environment

By Jeffrey J. Becker and John E. DeFoor

As we move past the plan of the day, proceed outside of the budget cycle, and venture beyond the 10-year horizon of strategic planning efforts, significant ongoing changes in the security environment will alter the character of warfare beyond recognition.

Damage Controlman tests countermeasure wash-down system on forecastle aboard USS Green Bay, Gulf of Thailand, February 9, 2017 (U.S. Navy/Chris Williamson)

A New Approach to Joint Concepts

By Erik Schwarz

The future operating environment will feature broad changes in the character of warfare. Driven by the rise of competent and competitive states; economic, social, and environmental challenges; and rapidly evolving technologies, these changes will necessitate innovation within the Department of Defense (DOD). Innovation must develop and employ new capabilities, organizational constructs, and approaches to warfighting to maintain competitive advantage over a broad range of potential adversaries.

U.S. Coastguardman watches as crew boat departs from Ardenne Venture after annual exam to ensure it complies with U.S. and international regulations prior to operating in U.S. waters and ports, San Diego, California, August 3, 2012 (U.S. Coast Guard/Henry G. Dunphy)

The U.S. Government’s Approach to Environmental Security: Focus on Campaign Activities

By George E. Katsos

This article continues the discussion on human security’s1 seven relevant dimensions: economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community, and political.2 Complementing previous Joint Force Quarterly installments on health and food security,3 the following describes the U.S. Government’s approach to environmental security with a focus on combatant commander campaign activities.

Joint Doctrine Updates

By The Joint Staff

Joint Doctrine Updates.