Figure 2. Conceptualizing Defense Innovation Trajectories.
Source: Michael Raska and Richard Bitzinger, “Locating China’s Place in the Global Defense Economy,” In Forging China’s Military Might: A New Framework for Assessing Innovation, ed. Tai Ming Cheung (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013); Thomas Mahnken, “Uncovering Foreign Military Innovation,” Journal of Strategic Studies 22, no. 4 (1999): 26–54; Theo Farrell and Terry Terriff, eds., The Sources of Military Change: Culture, Politics, Technology (London: Lynne Rienner 2002), 3–21; Andrew Ross, “On Military Innovation: Toward an Analytical Framework,” SITC Policy Brief no. 1 (January 2010), 4–17, available at ; Keith Krause, Arms and the State: Patterns of Military Production and Trade (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992), 12–80.