Contributors

Dr. Richard D. Hooker, Jr., is the Director for Research and Strategic Support and Director of the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) at the National Defense University (NDU) in Washington, DC. As a member of the Senior Executive Service, Dr. Hooker served as Deputy Commandant and Dean of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defense College in Rome from September 2010–August 2013. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, International Institute of Strategic Studies, and Foreign Policy Research Institute, and is a Fellow of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society. Dr. Hooker taught at the United States Military Academy at West Point and held the Chief of Staff of the Army Chair at the National War College. He served with the Office of National Service at the White House under President George H.W. Bush, with the Arms Control and Defense Directorate at the National Security Council (NSC) during the administration of William J. Clinton, and with the NSC Office for Iraq and Afghanistan during the administration of George W. Bush. While at the NSC he was a contributing author to The National Security Strategy of the United States. His areas of expertise include Defense Policy and Strategy, the Middle East, NATO/Europe, and Civil-Military Relations. Dr. Hooker graduated with a BS from the United States Military Academy in 1981 and holds an MA and Ph.D. in International Relations from the University of Virginia. He is a Distinguished Graduate of the National War College, where he earned a Master of Science in National Security Studies and also served as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow. His publications have been used widely in staff and defense college curricula in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, and include more than 50 articles and 3 books on security and defense-related topics. Dr. Hooker has lectured extensively at leading academic and military institutions in the United States and abroad. Prior to his retirement from Active duty, Dr. Hooker served for 30 years in the U.S. Army as a parachute infantry officer in the United States and Europe. While on Active duty he participated in military operations in Grenada, Somalia, Rwanda, the Sinai, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan, including command of a parachute brigade in Baghdad from January 2005 to January 2006. His military service also included tours in the offices of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Secretary of the Army, and Chief of Staff of the Army.

Dr. Joseph J. Collins is the Director of the Center for Complex Operations in INSS. He joined the National War College faculty in 2004 as Professor of National Security Strategy, where he taught military strategy, U.S. domestic context, and irregular warfare. He also directed the college’s writing program. Prior to his decade at the National War College, Dr. Collins served for 3 years as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Stability Operations, the Pentagon’s senior civilian official for peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and stabilization and reconstruction operations. His team led the stability operations effort in Afghanistan. From 1998–2001, he was a Senior Fellow in the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he did research on economic sanctions, military culture, and national security policy. In 1998, Dr. Collins retired from the U.S. Army as a colonel after nearly 28 years of military service. His Army years were equally divided between infantry and armor assignments in the United States, South Korea, and Germany; teaching at West Point in the Department of Social Sciences; and a series of assignments in the Pentagon, including Army Staff Officer for NATO and Warsaw Pact strategic issues, Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff of the Army, Military Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy during Operation Desert Storm, and Special Assistant and Chief Speechwriter to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Collins has also taught as adjunct faculty in the graduate divisions of Columbia University and Georgetown University. He is a life member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Collins holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Columbia University and a BA from Fordham University. He is also an honor graduate of the Army’s Command and General Staff College and holds a diploma from the National War College. Dr. Collins’s many publications include books and articles on the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Operation Desert Storm, contemporary U.S. military culture, defense transformation, and homeland defense. His most recent publications include Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath (NDU Press, 2008) and Understanding War in Afghanistan (NDU Press, 2011).

Dr. G. Alexander Crowther is the Deputy Director of and Cyber Policy Specialist in the Center for Technology and National Security Policy in INSS. He has extensive government service, including a decade each in the Cold War, post–Cold War, and post-9/11 eras. He has worked as a Western Hemisphere specialist, strategist, and political advisor. He served overseas eight times: three times in Latin America, twice in Korea, twice in Iraq, and once in Belgium. He has a variety of awards from the Department of Defense and Department of State as well as the Canadian government. His work at the strategic level includes tours at the Army Staff, Joint Staff J5 (Strategic Plans and Policies), and as a Research Professor at the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College. He was personally selected to be a Counterterrorism Advisor for the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, Political Advisor for the Multi-National Corps–Iraq Commander, and Special Assistant for the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. He was an International Security Studies Fellow at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. He is also an Adjunct Senior Political Scientist at the RAND Corporation and an Adjunct Research Professor of National Security Studies at the Strategic Studies Institute. Dr. Crowther has a BA in International Relations from Tufts University, an MS in International Relations from Troy University, and a Ph.D. in International Development from Tulane University.

Dr. Thomas X. Hammes is a Senior Research Fellow with the Center for Strategic Research in INSS. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University. His areas of expertise include military strategy, future conflict, and insurgency. Dr. Hammes graduated with a BS from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1975 and holds an MA in Historical Research and a Ph.D. in Modern History from Oxford University. He is a Distinguished Graduate of the Canadian National Defence College. His publications include The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century (Zenith, 2006) and Forgotten Warriors: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, the Corps Ethos, and the Korean War (Modern War Studies, 2010). He has also published 14 book chapters and over 120 articles. His publications have been used widely in staff and defense college curricula in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. Dr. Hammes has lectured at leading academic and military institutions in the United States and abroad. Prior to his retirement from Active duty, he served for 30 years in the U.S. Marine Corps to include command of an intelligence battalion, infantry battalion, and Chemical Biological Incident Response Force. He participated in military operations in Somalia and Iraq and trained insurgents in various locations.

Dr. Frank G. Hoffman is a Senior Research Fellow with the Center for Strategic Research in INSS. Prior, he was Deputy Director of the Office of Program Appraisal in the Department of the Navy from August 2009 to June 2011. Dr. Hoffman was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1978. From 1978–1983, after graduating from both The Basic School and Infantry Officer Course, he served in a variety of line and staff positions in the 2nd and 3rd Marine divisions. He was a company commander and Head Tactics Instructor at the School of Infantry at Camp Lejeune from 1980–1982. From 1983–1986, he was assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) and served as a resource analyst. He transferred to civilian service, continuing at HQMC until 1991 as a defense analyst. From 1991–1998, he served at the Marine Corps Combat Development Command at Quantico, Virginia, as a national security analyst. He represented the Marine Corps on the Defense Science Board and Commission on Roles and Missions in 1995. Dr. Hoffman was then the Special Assistant to the Commanding General for national security affairs and the Director of the Marine Strategic Studies Group for 2 years. In 1999, the Secretary of Defense appointed Dr. Hoffman to the staff of the U.S. National Security Commission for the 21st Century, where he developed the commission’s recommendations for the Department of Homeland Security. He served as a research fellow from 2001 to 2008 in the Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities at the Marine Warfighting Laboratory where he was responsible for conducting assessments on future threats. He worked with U.S. Joint Forces Command, Allied Command Transformation, and British, Australian, and Israeli partners on alternative futures and wargames and experimentation activities. While at Quantico, Dr. Hoffman conducted studies on future threats, developed Service and joint concepts, and was a member of Strategic Vision Group, which wrote the Marine Corps’ Vision and Strategy 2025. He was also a chapter author for Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency. He served on the 2004 Defense Science Board for postconflict stability operations and lectured extensively at professional military education institutions in Japan, Taiwan, Austria, Denmark, Israel, and the United Kingdom. His publications include Decisive Force: The New American Way of War (Praeger, 1996), 10 book chapters, and 100 essays and articles in foreign policy and academic journals. Dr. Hoffman graduated with a BS in economics from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, an MEd from George Mason University, an MA in security studies from the Naval War College; and an M.Phil. and Ph.D. from King’s College London.

Dr. Christopher J. Lamb is the Director of the Center for Strategic Research in INSS. He conducts research on national security strategy, policy and organizational reform, defense strategy, requirements, plans and programs, and special operations forces. Prior to joining INSS, Dr. Lamb served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Resources and Plans. He was responsible for strategic planning guidance, transformation planning guidance, contingency planning guidance, the Information Operations Roadmap, and oversight of combatant commander contingency planning. Dr. Lamb also has served as Director of Policy Planning in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict, Deputy Director for Military Development on the Department of State’s Interagency Task Force for Military Stabilization in the Balkans, and Director for Requirements and Plans in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He led the Project for National Security Reform study of the national security system from 2007–2008, which produced the landmark report Forging a New Shield. Prior to joining the Department of Defense, Dr. Lamb was a Foreign Service Officer with tours in Haiti, the Ivory Coast, and the Pentagon. Dr. Lamb received his doctorate in International Relations from Georgetown University in 1986. From 1993 through 1998 he was an Adjunct Professor in the National Security Studies program at Georgetown University. Dr. Lamb is the author of numerous articles and books, many of which are used in joint professional military education courses. His recent research includes collaborative studies on national security and defense reform, interagency teams, military requirements and transformation, and special operations forces.

Mr. Christoff Luehrs is a Research Analyst with the Center for Complex Operations in INSS. His work focuses on lessons learned from interagency operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the School of International Service at American University. Mr. Luehrs previously worked for the Center for Technology and National Security Policy in INSS on its Stability Operations Seminar series. Originally from Germany, Mr. Luehrs served in the German army, including a tour with NATO’s Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He holds a BA in War Studies and History and an MA in International Relations from King’s College London.

Dr. Nicholas Rostow is a University Professor at NDU and a Distinguished Research Professor with the Center for Strategic Research in INSS. He specializes in international and national security law and affairs and U.S. Government and international decisionmaking in foreign and national security policy. He is also a Senior Research Scholar at the Yale Law School. Prior to joining NDU in September 2010, Dr. Rostow served for more than 4 years as University Counsel and Vice Chancellor for Legal Affairs and tenured full professor at the State University of New York. His public service positions include General Counsel and Senior Policy Adviser to the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2001–2005; Charles H. Stockton Chair in International Law at the U.S. Naval War College in 2001; Staff Director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1999–2000; Counsel and Deputy Staff Director to the House Select Committee on Military/Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China from 1998–1999 (the Cox Committee investigation of high technology transfers to China); Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, and Legal Adviser to the National Security Council under Colin Powell and Brent Scowcroft from 1987–1993; and Special Assistant to the Legal Adviser in the Department of State from 1985–1987. In this latter capacity, he served as Counsel to the President’s Special Review Board (Tower Board), investigating the role of the National Security Council staff in the Iran-Contra Affair, and wrote a substantial portion of the Tower Board report (appendix D). Dr. Rostow has taught in the College of Law at the University of Tulsa, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, and the Naval War College. He graduated from Yale with a BA summa cum laude, a Ph.D. in history, and a JD. His publications are in the fields of diplomatic history, international law, and issues of U.S. national security and foreign policy.

Ms. Sara Thannhauser is a Counterterrorism Specialist at the Department of the Treasury. From 2009 to 2014, she was a Research Fellow with the Center for Complex Operations in INSS, where she worked on national security issues involving irregular conflict, interagency affairs, and lessons learned from modern conflicts. Her duties included field research in Iraq and Afghanistan with both diplomats and military personnel. She assisted the Joint Staff and Office of the Secretary of Defense for Policy on counterinsurgency doctrine and policy in North Africa. Ms. Thannhauser also served as staff editor for the journal PRISM. She holds an MA in International Affairs from American University and a BA summa cum laude from Saint Bonaventure’s University.